Crop Protection

How to control diseases of apple; Advisory as per 2024

17 February 2024, New Delhi: The spray schedule for the control of diseases of Apple for 2024 has been released by the Department of Horticulture, Himachal Pradesh, Shimla, and Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, District Solan (H.P.).

Below are some important points to note related to the spray of agrochemicals:

1. This spray schedule is for normal weather conditions.
2. In case of heavy rains within 12 hours of spray, the spray is to be repeated within seven days.
3. Do not repeat the same chemical for spray.
4. Pesticides should be sprayed when there are chances of diseases.
5. Do not mix Dodine with other pesticides/chemicals.

6. Do not mix any other pesticide/chemical/micro-nutrient/growth regulator/hormone with the above-recommended pesticides to avoid russeting and other disorders. When necessary, these may be sprayed separately.
7. The fallen leaves of apples should be collected and decomposed in a compost pit or 5% urea sprayed on the orchard floor to ensure fast decomposition of infected leaves.
8. For the control of White root rot, drench the basin area 3-4 times, with Carbendazim (0.1%) or Aureofungin (0.05%) + Copper Sulphate (0.05%) at the onset of the rainy season to a depth of 15-20  cm.  During winters,  expose the root system of infected trees to the sun.  Remove the infected portion and apply Bordeaux paint.
9. For the control of Collar rot, scarify wounds near the collar region and apply Bordeaux paint or any other Copper fungicide-based paint during the winter season. Drench the whole tree basin at a distance of 30 cm from the tree trunk with Mancozeb (0.3%) during the rainy season.
10. In scab-prone areas 12-14 days interval should be maintained between the sprays up to the primary scab stage.

11. Use of Captan should be avoided before and after the oil spray for a minimum of 15 days.
12. Dodine should not be mixed with hard water.
13. Application of bio-control agents/bio-pesticides can be used against collar rot, root rot, and root borers.

14. Preventive measures for Apple diseases:
a. Crown gall or Hairy root – Avoid injury to the collar region and rouge out infected plants and destroy them.
b. Foliar  Diseases – As the pathogen overwinters on the fallen leaves and therefore orchard sanitation by removing weeds and bushes and by removing the fallen leaf litter from the orchard floor,  is one of the most important measures to reduce the initial inoculum. Adopt proper pruning of trees for adequate air circulation and rapid drying of foliage,  thus preventing the development of secondary lesions in the orchard.
c. Powdery Mildew – Prune off the silver terminals and destroy them.
d. Canker – These include removal and destruction of infected plant parts, mummified fruits, dead twigs, and pruned branches, avoiding mechanical injuries, application of balanced fertilizers based on leaf and soil analysis, proper irrigation during hot dry periods to avoid tree stress, protecting plants from high and low-temperature injuries and ensuring effective control of insect pests and diseases.

Recommendations for Hail damage: –
1. Spray 100 gm Carbendazim or 600 gm Mancozeb in 200 L of water immediately after hail.
2. Spray 200 gm Boric acid + 500 gm Zinc Sulphate + 250 gm Quick lime in 200 L of water within 3-4 days of the hail storm.
3. After 10 to 12 days, a spray of micro-nutrients like Agromin, Multiplex, or Microvit @ 400 to 600 g per 200 L of water is also recommended. Spray the hail-affected apple orchard with 1 kg Urea in 200L of water.

Enhancement of fruit size:
Need base application of Gibberellic Acid 1.8%+Benzyladinine1.8%L @30-60 ppm can be applied on full bloom stage for enhancement of fruit size (L:D ratio) and size.

Note:- *The pesticides are proposed to be banned viz. Captan, Ziram, Mancozeb, Carbendazim, Thiophanate methyl, Zineb, Malathion & Chlorpyriphos by the Government vide Gazette Notification No. CG-DL-E-18052020-219423, Extraordinary Part-II- Section-3- Subsection (ii), dated 18th May 2020 regarding- Banning of Insecticides Order, 2020.

Spray schedule for the control of diseases of Apple as of 2024

Sr.No.Tree StageName of ChemicalQuantity of Chemical for 200 L ofWaterControl of DiseasesRemarks
1Green tipCaptan* or Dodine or Ziram*600gm 200gm
600 (ml/gm)
Fluxapyroxad 75g/l+ Difenoconazole 50 g/l SC60 mlScab/powdery mildew
2Pink budMancozeb* or Propineb orDifenoconazole orHexaconazole 4%+ Zineb68% WP600 gm
600 gm
30 ml
500 gm
ScabScab/Powdery Mildew/ Core Rot
3Petal fall/ Pea StageCarbendazim* orThiophanateMethyl* orHexaconazole or Myclobutanil orFlusilazole 40% EC orMancozeb 60%+Pyraclostrobin 5% w/w WG100 gm
100 gm
100 ml
80 gm 
700 gm
Tebuconazole 50%+ Trifloxystrobin 25%WG orTebuconazole 8%+ Captan 32% SC orBoscalid 25.2%+ Pyraclostrobin 12.8%w/w WG orMetrafenone 500g/l SC80 gm
500 ml
50 gm
20 ml
Powdery mildew
Carbendazim 12%+ Mancozeb 63% WP500 gmScab/powdery mildew
Carbendazim 25%+ Flusilazole 12.5% SC160 mlScab/Powdery Mildew
Metiram70%WG600 gmAlternaria leaf spot/Scab
4FruitDevelopm ent(Walnut size)Mancozeb* or Propineb orDodine600gm
150 gm
ScabDo     not     spray Dodine               iftemperature       is above   30°C   and slow drying condition prevails.
Metiram 55%+Pyraclostrobin 5%WG200gmAlternaria leaf spot/ Blight/Pre mature leaf fall
Tebuconazole 8%+ Captan 32% SC orFluxapyroxad 250 g/l+ Pyraclostrobin 250 g/l 500 SC orFluopyram 17.7% w/w+ Tebuconazole 17.7% w/w SC orDodine 40% SC orHexaconazole 4%+ Zineb 68% WP500 ml
50 ml
126 ml
150 ml
500 gm
Alternaria leaf spot/ Premature leaf fallAlternaria leaf spot/ Premature leaf fallAlternaria leaf spot/ Premature leaf fall
5Fruit Development(2 0 days after 4th spray)After 4th spray)Tebuconazole 50%+ Trifloxystrobin 25%WGPropineb* orZineb*80 gm
600 gm
600 gm
Pre mature leaf fallScabScab, Black rot
Carbendazim 25%+ Flusilazole 12.5% SC160 mlAlternaria leaf spot/ Premature leaf fall
Mancozeb 60%+Pyraclostrobin 5% w/w WG700 gmMarssonina Leaf Blotch/Scab
Metiram 70% WG600 gmMarssonina Leaf Blotch/AternariaLeaf Spot/Scab
6Pre harvest (20-25 days before harvest)Captan* or Ziram*600 gm
Scab/Fly speck/Bitter rot Scab
Metiram 55%+Pyraclostrobin 5%WG200gmAlternaria leaf spot/ blight
Fluopyram 17.7% w/w+Tebuconazole 17.7% w/w  SC126 mlAlternaria leaf spot/Premature leaf fall/Fruit Rot
Hexaconazole 4%+ Zineb68% WP500 gmAlternaria leaf spot/ Premature leaf fall/ Scab
Spray schedule for the control of diseases of Apple as of 2024

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