Types of stress in plants. Basic guide for farmers
26 May 2023, US: Just as humans must cope with circumstances that take us to the limit in our daily lives, plants don’t always grow in the ideal environment and are subjected to external situations that negatively affect them physiologically and metabolically.
These situations of stress impede them from reaching or developing their full productive potential, creating a strong negative impact on productivity and survival of the world’s primary plant and tree crops.
In this short guide, we will explain the types of stresses that exist, what causes them and the solutions available on the market. Don’t miss out!
BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC STRESS
Situations of stress in plants can be classified into two large groups depending on the factor which causes them.
- Biotic stress factors. They are caused by other living organisms, animals, insects, plants, fungi, bacteria, pathogens, etc.
- Abiotic stress factors, such as temperature, solar radiation, drought, flooding, salinity, agronomic practices, the use of machinery or other farming tools, etc. These are physical and chemical factors.
TYPES OF STRESS IN PLANTS
Now let’s get down to business. These are the most common types of stresses in plants:
1.- TEMPERATURE STRESS.
Most plants are sensitive to temperature stress and suffer when temperatures rise above their defined thresholds. High temperatures, for example, cause physiological and metabolic damage. With low temperatures, plants stop growing or freeze and eventually die.
2.- STRESS DUE TO A LACK OR EXCESS OF LIGHT.
Light is the source of energy for photosynthesis, which is directly related to the production of carbohydrates and oxygen. Each plant has its own needs for light and sun, and the lack or excess of them also influences growth and development.
3.- STRESS PRODUCED BY INFECTIONS FROM PATHOGENS, PESTS AND VIRUSES.
Plants may suffer attacks from other harmful organisms that limit or affect their development, and furthermore, the application of synthetic treatments to combat them may also be stressful depending on the conditions in which they are undertaken.
4.- STRESS DUE TO ABSENCE OR EXCESS OF NUTRIENTS.
Of course, the absence of nutrients affects the growth of plants and their fruits, but an excess also produces negative effects, as is the case with nitrogen and phosphorous.
5.- SALINITY STRESS.
This type of stress may be produced by the excess of salt in the soil or in the irrigation water. Poor irrigation control may also have an impact in these salinity problems.
6.- WATER STRESS.
Water stress is one of the most frequent stresses and one of the primary causes of plant death. Without water, there is an imbalance between transpiration and water absorption, and plants cannot transport nutrients from the roots to the leaves, affecting crop growth and production. On the other hand, too much water in the medium may provoke a series of shocks that limit the growth of the plant because of the lack of oxygen.
7.- MECHANICAL STRESS.
This is stress caused by damage from agricultural machinery and other tools used in agricultural processes, such as pruning, transplanting, or thinning. This also includes stresses provoked by adverse weather conditions like hail, wind, etc.
SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS TO REDUCE STRESS IN PLANTS
Reducing stress in plants is one of the main tasks to maintain crop quality and profitability. And doing so sustainably is an even more important challenge. At Symborg, we strongly believe in biotechnology as a tool to achieve this, and we’ve placed a large range of solutions that promote the reduction of stress in plants into the hands of farmers. The following are some examples:
The biological inoculants MycoUp, Resid MG and Resid HC promote development of the roots and improve nutrient and water absorption, which leads to stronger plants. These solutions are suitable for resolving effects of abiotic stress, especially water stress and salinity problems. As a result, plants are better prepared to face droughts.
MycoUp 360 is another biological inoculant. It is suitable for both abiotic and biotic stress. This solution enables production to be maximized, even in the presence of pathogens.
TrichoSym Bio increases plant resistance against abiotic stress such as salinity, drought, and flooding. It improves plant nutrition by solubilizing macro and micronutrients and increases the ability to develop the root system.
Lastly, MBB 10 is a soil regenerator based on rhizospheric microorganisms, designed to tackle both types of stress, biotic and abiotic. It unblocks nutrients, fixes nitrogen, and solubilizes phosphorous and other trace elements that allow the plant to optimize its nutrition program in moments of maximum nutritional need.
As you can see, at Symborg we were born with innovation in our DNA and we’re available for farmers across the globe to achieve more profitable harvests in a way that is sustainable and safe for the environment. Will you join us?
Also Read: Tractor industry in India expected to grow by 3-4% in 2023-24: Narinder Mittal, Managing Director of CNH Industrial India
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